Introduction Part One Part Two Part Three Part Four Part Five


 The Exodus Deception



This is a non-believer’s website. It is an analysis of the Bible based on science and reason, not faith. Believers are welcome to read. I’d love to get some feedback. But I make decisions based on evidence, not trust. So we will probably be speaking different languages. Now for the non-believers. You may think the Bible is wrong, therefore not worth studying. I think the Bible is arguably the most influential book in the history of civilization. So if you have an interest in history, what could be more worthy of study?


Enough said. I’ve been working for a little under three years, mostly going through well trodden ground. But as a person well educated in science and math, I’ve caught a few things that I believe the theologians and historians have missed; for example, ash falling from the sky, in Exodus 9-9. I think I’ve found enough to crack the case wide open: Who wrote the story of Moses? When? And Why? It’s a radical new explanation, and it has a feature that no other theory of the Exodus can claim. My theory can be tested. Right or wrong, with science.


Here are the tests:


1) Among the plagues preceding the Exodus were three days of darkness and the Nile turning to blood (as well as water in every open container). As has been proposed before, I agree that the three days of darkness were likely not a supernatural phenomenon, but the result of sunlight being blocked by volcanic ash. What has been overlooked is that the ash may have been very rich in iron. Ash containing iron could have rusted in water making the Nile look like blood (as well as water in every open container). This provides a method to date the Exodus. An annual history of large eruptions is recorded in a recent (1990’s) Greenland ice core. From Numbers 14:22 (Exodus at or after construction of Zoan) I suspected an eruption in the 1060’s BC or shortly thereafter. The ice core shows an eruption in 1066 BC, then nothing for decades. It’s a process of elimination.


The closest volcanoes to Egypt are across the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. Their reddish color is visible from space. They are loaded with iron. Thus a river of blood can be explained if ash from an Arabian volcano blew east across the Red Sea to Egypt. Of course it’s not really blood, but it is iron, the same as in blood. A blood red Nile would have been an incredible sight, especially since the ash on dry land would not have rusted. Water is required to change the color. It would have been difficult to make the connection.


If there was a heavy fall of volcanic ash in Egypt, even more would have fallen into the Red Sea. It will still be there. This is the test: find an area free of scouring currents and drill into the seafloor. A layer of ash should be found in sediment with a radiocarbon date of 1066 BC. Radiocarbon can’t measure to the year, but it will be something like 1070 BC +/- 20 years, which is a hit. If the ash is there, that’s a yes. If not, that’s a no. How many Exodus theories can be tested 3,000 years later?


2) The only known Egyptian reference to a river of blood is in an ancient poem called The Abominations of Ipuwer. Scholars have debated for decades about when the Ipuwer papyrus was written. In the meantime, the amount of papyrus required to obtain a good radiocarbon date has gone down from about the size of a sheet of paper to less than the size of a postage stamp. It’s time to trim a few bits from the frayed edges and test it. If the papyrus dates to before 1066 BC, I’m probably wrong (unless the papyrus was already old before it was used). If the date is on or after 1066 BC, I’m probably right, especially if the date is squarely on 1066 BC. This test isn’t as conclusive, but if the papyrus test comes out in agreement with the seafloor test, that cannot reasonably be attributed to chance. These tests could confirm the date of the Exodus, but would not tell what happened, other than that the Ipuwer papyrus should be taken seriously.


3) If you’ve caught that 1066 BC is far too late for the date of the Exodus by everybody’s theory but mine, yes.  It’s too late for 1st Kings 6:1 (480 years before Solomon’s temple) and it’s too late for Exodus 1:11 (construction of Pithom and Rameses), while 1066 BC does match Numbers 14:22; (construction of Zoan). All three verses can’t be right. I’ve found several lines of evidence consistent with an Exodus just prior to the construction of Zoan. That’s the tie breaker.


In addition to the well known version in the Bible, there is a much lesser known description of the Exodus in the ancient book Against Apion.  It is copied from an earlier Egyptian history book that has since been lost. In the Egyptian version of the Exodus, Moses is described as a radical Egyptian priest who invited the “people of Jerusalem” to join him in war to conquer Egyptian territory. As the Egyptians recorded it, the Exodus was when Moses was defeated and ran away. It was essentially the loss of a civil war.


The Egyptian account says Moses was defeated by a “King Amenhotep.” King generally means Pharaoh, but Amenhotep was a commonly used name in ancient Egypt. In 1066 BC, this name could match a very powerful High Priest Amenhotep, who could well have proclaimed himself pharaoh. Egyptologists don’t know because the final years of Amenhotep’s life are not recorded. This could explain why the Exodus is not found elsewhere (other than Against Apion) in the historical record of Egypt. If we don’t know what happened to High Priest Amenhotep, we are certainly not going to know if he had a battle with Moses. The Exodus could have occurred in a blind spot in Egyptian history.


The significance of High Priest Amenhotep is that if he had a battle against anyone, it would have been a civil war to overthrow the existing pharaoh, Ramesses XI. This means Moses would have been fighting on the side of the existing pharaoh, against the challenging new pharaoh. In fact, that blind spot in Egyptian history is just where Pharaoh Ramesses XI disappeared without a trace. He could have died. He could have been overthrown, and fled on the Exodus with Moses. There is some evidence to support that he fled. For some reason workers never finished the tomb of Ramesses XI, as if they learned there would no longer be a body to put in it.


Where is this going? Pharaohs were considered the priest above all priests. If Ramesses XI fled with the Exodus, then he would be the highest ranking priest on the Exodus. That would be Aaron, the older brother of Moses. So that is the radical part of the theory. I have multiple lines of evidence that lead me to conclude Moses was a pharaoh’s brother, If I’ve got it right, Moses was royalty by blood, which explains why he was raised by a pharaoh’s daughter. I don’t trust that Moses was found in a basket and adopted. That could be a flimsy excuse to explain away who he really was.


The Egyptian version of the Exodus gives a better explanation of who Moses was. It is reported that he was a priest of Heliopolis. If he was a pharaoh’s brother, he wouldn’t be a low ranking priest. That would likely make him Prince Menmaatre, High Priest of Heliopolis and son of Pharaoh Ramesses IX. The family tree of the Ramessides is given in The Complete Royal Families of Egypt, by Egyptologist Aidan Dodson. Nobody has ever checked this before, but to the extent that it is known, the family tree of the Ramesside Pharaohs matches the Bible’s family tree of Moses. Admittedly, the Egyptian records are sketchy, but there is another way to check.


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Three tests: none of them easy, all of them possible... The DNA test is the least expensive and would certainly be the most damning. The irony is, proof that the Bible is (partially) a lie would be in the blood of every Jewish Priest. If this is the case, no one alive is to be blamed or ashamed. A bunch of washed up Egyptian royalty wandered into Israel and lied to the Israelites. Their little fib blossomed into the most widely practiced religion on the planet. The first generation lies; the second generation suspects, and the third generation never knows. We are now beyond 100 generations.


I think this is fascinating, and I hope the tests can be conducted in my lifetime. They won’t be, unless this theory is taken as credible. The rest of this website is the full presentation of mathematical, scientific and historical evidence which led me to 1066 BC, and the Israelites as naive victims of charlatan Ramessides. If you think I’m a nut, read a little more, and then decide.


I've divided the website into five parts (chapters). The total is the equivalent of about 50 pages of text, plus supporting diagrams and photos.  It's a long read. Parts 1 through 3 present the majority of the case. Parts 4 and 5 are things I didn't want to toss.


  • Part 1: The Old Testament timeline by generations, Ramesses XI, ice cores and Hala-'l Badr 
  • Part 2: Horemheb and Paramessu, High Priest Amenhotep, Solomon and the Levites
  • Part 3: Hebron and Zoan, the family tree of Ramesses III, Josephus, Manetho, civil war in Egypt
  • Part 4: Merneptah, Joshua and the judges of Israel, the series vs. parallel chronologies
  • Part 5: The Ark of the Covenent, the pillar of cloud and pillar of fire, Solomon's laws, about the author

originally posted 11/10/08, revised  7/24/09      

Use the navigation bar at the bottom of the page

 or click  here  to begin Part One

|Introduction| |Part One| |Part Two| |Part Three| |Part Four| |Part Five|